Tuesday, December 7, 2021

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Mitral valve prolapse is a disease wherein the leaflets or flaps of the mitral valve of the heart bulge (prolapse) like a parachute into the left atrium of the heart as it contracts during systole. It is also referred to as Barlow’s syndrome, Click-murmur syndrome, Floppy valve syndrome, Myxomatous mitral valve disease, or Billowing mitral valve syndrome. Sometimes, this prolapse can result in mitral valve regurgitation, a condition in which the blood starts to flow backward into the left atrium instead of the left ventricle. The turbulent blood flow or leaky heart valve results in the murmuring of the heart (a whooshing sound coming from the heart). Get the best care and treatment for mitral valve polapse with experienced heart surgeon in India Dr. Sujay Shad, (MBBS, MS, RCPS, FRCS (Cardiothoracic Surgery)). He is an expert in performing Cardiac Surgeries and Mitral Valve Repair in Delhi and supports his patients to get an improved quality of life.

What causes mitral valve prolapse?

In some cases it is caused due to heredity. It may also be linked to various other medical conditions, including:

  • Muscular dystrophy

  • Scoliosis

  • Grave’s disease

  • Marfan syndrome

  • Ebstein anomaly

  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

  • Rheumatic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that result in valvular structure damage and Secondary mitral valve prolapse.


What are the symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse?

Most individuals having mitral valve prolapse do not show any symptoms. Such people are advised to have some restrictions or limitations in their lifestyle, personal exercise, or daily diet. But some individuals may experience varied signs and symptoms. The most commonly occurring symptoms include:

Chest pain and discomfort: The pain felt in the chest is debilitating and occurs frequently.

Palpitations: People may have a sensation of rapid heart beating or fluttering of the heart. These are generally linked to the premature contraction of the ventricles but sometimes supraventricular rhythms (abnormal heart rhythm that start above the ventricles) may also be the reason.

Signs of heart failure: This includes fatigue (easy tiredness), weakness, dizziness, anxiety, and shortness of breath. The heart may fail due to the severity of the leakage of the blood into the left atrium during systole (i.e. because of mitral regurgitation). Some people may faint or pass out (called syncope) and also experience tingling or numbing sensations in the hands and feet.


How is Mitral Valve Prolapse treated?

Mitral valve prolapse is rarely a serious concern and does not require treatment (especially in people who have no symptoms). Moderate to severe cases of mitral valve prolapse leading to mitral valve regurgitation are recommended treatment either by medications or surgery. The best choice of treatment for the patient is determined by the doctor based on:

  • General health and medical history of the patient

  • The severity of the disease

  • The expectations, preference, and opinion of the patient for the course of treatment

  • The tolerance levels for specific procedures, therapies, or medications.


Some treatment modalities that work best for Mitral Valve Prolapse include:

Medications: Some prescribed medications include diuretics (to drain excess fluids from lungs), beta-blockers (to prevent irregular heartbeats by improving blood flow), anticoagulants and blood thinners (to minimize the risk of blood clotting), and heart rhythm medications (to normalize the heart’s electrical activity that contribute to arrhythmia).   

Surgery: Even if the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse appear or not in the patients but there is severe mitral valve regurgitation, surgery is recommended. In mitral valve prolapse surgery, the mitral valve is either replaced or repaired by performing open-heart surgery or by a minimally invasive procedure. 

During the surgery, Dr. Sujay Shad, cardiac surgeon in Delhi modifies the mitral valve of the patient by removing the extra valve tissues or by attaching a flappy valve tissue to stop the backward blood flow into the left atrium. A ring may also be reinforced around the valve of the heart to prevent mitral valve regurgitation. In case repair is not possible, an artificial mitral valve made up of human tissue or heart tissues of cows and pigs is used as a replacement for the damaged mitral valve. These mechanical valves can last longer for about 10 years or more by maintaining heart health.      

Transcatheter valve therapy: This is a less invasive approach for people who cannot undergo surgical repair or replacement in case of severe mitral valve regurgitation. In this therapy, the doctors make a small incision in the groin area through which an implant is inserted using a catheter shoved into a blood vessel present in the groin and guided to the heart. To know more about this life saving heart surgery consult Dr. Sujay Shad, best heart specialist in Delhi.  

Dr. Sujay Shad, best heart surgeon in India is an expert in performing various lifesaving surgeries like Heart Transplants, Coronary Bypasses, HOCM, Aortic Surgery, and Mitral Valve repairs and replacements. Get in touch for more information.

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